Doctoral studies require skills and techniques (tools) that vary with the specific needs of the discipline. The degree-granting components determine the suitability of specific research tools for their programs. In general, such tools comprise coursework equivalent to a minimum of six graduate semester credit hours for each tool. Equivalent competencies may, if acceptable to the component, be demonstrated by examination. The degree-granting component establishes whether the semester credit hours are included in the 72 to 90 semester credit hours required for the program or whether they are required in addition to the minimum semester credit hours needed for the degree.